Preview: Ein Aufbauspiel in einem Setting, das wir so noch nie gesehen haben. Aztec Empire sieht hübsch aus und könnte frischen Wind in. From 15 October the Weltmuseum Wien is hosting an exhibition that showcases the legendary art and culture of the Aztecs. Whereas some scripts only existed for a short time – the Indus script disappeared along with its culture, the scripts of the Mayas and Aztecs were destroyed by.
Aztec Empire: So ein Aufbauspiel hatten wir noch nieFrom 15 October the Weltmuseum Wien is hosting an exhibition that showcases the legendary art and culture of the Aztecs. Many translated example sentences containing "Aztec" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Preview: Ein Aufbauspiel in einem Setting, das wir so noch nie gesehen haben. Aztec Empire sieht hübsch aus und könnte frischen Wind in.
Atztec Navigation menu Video9. The Aztecs - A Clash of Worlds (Part 1 of 2)
It was the role of the Cihuacoatl to govern a given city itself. The Cihuacoatl was always a close relative of the Huey tlatoani; Tlacaelel , for example, was the brother of Moctezuma I.
Both the title "Cihuacoatl", which means "female snake" it is the name of a Nahua deity , and the role of the position, somewhat analogous to a European Viceroy or Prime Minister , reflect the dualistic nature of Nahua cosmology.
Neither the position of Cihuacoatl nor the position of Huetlatoani were priestly, yet both did have important ritual tasks.
Those of the former were associated with the "female" wet season, those of the latter with the "male" dry season. While the position of Cihuacoatl is best attested in Tenochtitlan, it is known that the position also existed the nearby altepetl of Atzcapotzalco , Culhuacan , and Tenochtitlan's ally Texcoco.
Despite the apparent lesser status of the position, a Cihuacoatl could prove both influential and powerful, as in the case of Tlacaelel.
Early in the history of the empire, Tenochtitlan developed a four-member military and advisory Council which assisted the Huey tlatoani in his decision-making: the tlacochcalcatl ; the tlaccatecatl ; the ezhuahuacatl ;  and the tlillancalqui.
This design not only provided advise for the ruler, it also served to contain ambition on the part of the nobility, as henceforth Huey Tlatoani could only be selected from the Council.
Moreover, the actions of any one member of the Council could easily be blocked by the other three, providing a simple system of checks on the ambition higher officials.
These four Council members were also generals, members of various military societies. The ranks of the members were not equal, with the tlacochcalcatl and tlaccatecatl having a higher status than the others.
These two Councillors were members of the two most prestigious military societies, the cuauhchique "shorn ones" and the otontin " Otomies ". Traditionally, provinces and altepetl were governed by hereditary tlatoani.
As the empire grew, the system evolved further and some tlatoani were replaced by other officials. The other officials had similar authority to tlatoani.
As has already been mentioned, directly appointed stewards singular calpixqui , plural calpixque were sometimes imposed on altepetl instead of the selection of provincial nobility to the same position of tlatoani.
At the height of empire, the organization of the state into tributary and strategic provinces saw an elaboration of this system.
The 38 tributary provinces fell under the supervision of high stewards, or huecalpixque , whose authority extended over the lower-ranking calpixque.
These calpixque and huecalpixque were essentially managers of the provincial tribute system which was overseen and coordinated in the paramount capital of Tenochtitlan not by the huetlatoani , but rather by a separate position altogether: the petlacalcatl.
On the occasion that a recently conquered altepetl was seen as particularly restive, a military governor, or cuauhtlatoani , was placed at the head of provincial supervision.
One was stationed in the province itself, perhaps for supervising the collection of tribute, and the other in Tenochtitlan, perhaps for supervising storage of tribute.
Tribute was drawn from commoners, the macehualtin , and distributed to the nobility, be they 'kings' tlatoque , lesser rulers teteuctin , or provincial nobility pipiltin.
Tribute collection was supervised by the above officials and relied upon the coercive power of the Aztec military, but also upon the cooperation of the pipiltin the local nobility who were themselves exempt from and recipient to tribute and the hereditary class of merchants known as pochteca.
These pochteca had various gradations of ranks which granted them certain trading rights and so were not necessarily pipiltin themselves, yet they played an important role in both the growth and administration of the Aztec tributary system nonetheless.
The power, political and economic, of the pochteca was strongly tied to the political and military power of the Aztec nobility and state.
In addition to serving as diplomats teucnenenque , or "travelers of the lord" and spies in the prelude to conquest, higher-ranking pochteca also served as judges in market plazas and were to certain degree autonomous corporate groups , having administrative duties within their own estate.
Originally, the Aztec empire was a loose alliance between three cities: Tenochtitlan , Texcoco , and the most junior partner, Tlacopan.
As such, they were known as the 'Triple Alliance. However, over time, it was Tenochtitlan which assumed paramount authority in the alliance, and although each partner city shared spoils of war and rights to regular tribute from the provinces and were governed by their own Huetlatoani, it was Tenochtitlan which became the largest, most powerful, and most influential of the three cities.
It was the de facto and acknowledged center of empire. Though they were not described by the Aztec this way, there were essentially two types of provinces: Tributary and Strategic.
Strategic provinces were essentially subordinate client states which provided tribute or aid to the Aztec state under "mutual consent". Tributary provinces, on the other hand, provided regular tribute to the empire; obligations on the part of Tributary provinces were mandatory rather than consensual.
Rulers, be they local teteuctin or tlatoani, or central Huetlatoani, were seen as representatives of the gods and therefore ruled by divine right.
Tlatocayotl , or the principle of rulership, established that this divine right was inherited by descent. Political order was therefore also a cosmic order, and to kill a tlatoani was to transgress that order.
For that reason, whenever a tlatoani was killed or otherwise removed from their station, a relative and member of the same bloodline was typically placed in their stead.
The establishment of the office of Huetlatoani understood through the creation of another level of rulership, hueitlatocayotl , standing in superior contrast to the lesser tlatocayotl principle.
Expansion of the empire was guided by a militaristic interpretation of Nahua religion, specifically a devout veneration of the sun god, Huitzilopochtli.
Militaristic state rituals were performed throughout the year according to a ceremonial calendar of events, rites, and mock battles.
It was under Tlacaelel that Huitzilopochtli assumed his elevated role in the state pantheon and who argued that it was through blood sacrifice that the Sun would be maintained and thereby stave off the end of the world.
It was under this new, militaristic interpretation of Huitzilopochtli that Aztec soldiers were encouraged to fight wars and capture enemy soldiers for sacrifice.
Though blood sacrifice was common in Mesoamerica, the scale of human sacrifice under the Aztecs was likely unprecedented in the region.
The most developed code of law was developed in the city-state of Texcoco under its ruler Nezahualcoyotl.
It was a formal written code, not merely a collection of customary practices. The law code in Texcoco under Nezahualcoyotl was legalistic, that is cases were tried by particular types of evidence and the social status of the litigants was disregarded, and consisted of 80 written laws.
These laws called for severe, publicly administered punishments, creating a legal framework of social control.
Much less is known about the legal system in Tenochtitlan, which might be less legalistic or sophisticated as those of Texcoco for this period.
These laws served to establish and govern relations between the state, classes, and individuals. Punishment was to be meted out solely by state authorities.
Nahua mores were enshrined in these laws, criminalizing public acts of homosexuality, drunkenness, and nudity, not to mention more universal proscriptions against theft, murder, and property damage.
As stated before, pochteca could serve as judges, often exercising judicial oversight of their own members. Likewise, military courts dealt with both cases within the military and without during wartime.
There was an appeal process, with appellate courts standing between local, typically market-place courts, on the provincial level and a supreme court and two special higher appellate courts at Tenochtitlan.
One of those two special courts dealt with cases arising within Tenochtitlan, the other with cases originating from outside the capital. The ultimate judicial authority laid in hands of the Huey tlatoani , who had the right to appoint lesser judges.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Aztec Empire as a political entity. For Aztec culture, see Aztecs. For Aztec society, see Aztec society.
Imperial alliance of city states located in central Mexico during the 15th and 16th centuries. Engraving of the Teocalli of the Sacred War representing the Aztec coat of arms.
Quachtli Cocoa bean. Full list of monarchs at bottom of page. Main article: Aztec warfare. Main article: Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire.
See also: Aztec religion. See also: Aztec emperors family tree. International Studies Quarterly. Retrieved 7 September Oxford University Press Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.
Stanford University Press. Somervill Empire of the Aztecs. Infobase Publishing. Glass 18 February In Robert Wauchope ed.
University of Texas Press. University of Oklahoma Press Sarah Cline, and Javier Pescador. Pearson, Douglass K.
Ballentine, translator. El Paso: Texas Western Press, Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest 1st pbk edition ed.
New York: Columbia University Press. Place names and loanwords from the Aztec language Nahuatl permeate the Mexican landscape and vocabulary, and Aztec symbols and mythology have been promoted by the Mexican government and integrated into contemporary Mexican nationalism as emblems of the country.
During the 19th century, the image of the Aztecs as uncivilized barbarians was replaced with romanticized visions of the Aztecs as original sons of the soil, with a highly developed culture rivaling the ancient European civilizations.
When Mexico became independent from Spain, a romanticized version of the Aztecs became a source of images that could be used to ground the new nation as a unique blend of European and American.
Aztec culture and history has been central to the formation of a Mexican national identity after Mexican independence in In 17th and 18th century Europe, the Aztecs were generally described as barbaric, gruesome and culturally inferior.
Intellectuals utilized Aztec writings , such as those collected by Fernando de Alva Ixtlilxochitl , and writings of Hernando Alvarado Tezozomoc , and Chimalpahin to understand Mexico's indigenous past in texts by indigenous writers.
This search became the basis for what historian D. Brading calls "creole patriotism. He wrote it expressly to defend Mexico's indigenous past against the slanders of contemporary writers, such as Pauw, Buffon, Raynal, and William Robertson.
Unearthed were the famous calendar stone, as well as a statue of Coatlicue. A decade later, German scientist Alexander von Humboldt spent a year in Mexico, during his four-year expedition to Spanish America.
One of his early publications from that period was Views of the Cordilleras and Monuments of the Indigenous Peoples of the Americas.
In the realm of religion, late colonial paintings of the Virgin of Guadalupe have examples of her depicted floating above the iconic nopal cactus of the Aztecs.
Juan Diego , the Nahua to whom the apparition was said to appear, links the dark Virgin to Mexico's Aztec past. When New Spain achieved independence in and became a monarchy, the First Mexican Empire , its flag had the traditional Aztec eagle on a nopal cactus.
The eagle had a crown, symbolizing the new Mexican monarchy. In the s, when the French established the Second Mexican Empire under Maximilian of Habsburg , the Mexican flag retained the emblematic eagle and cactus, with elaborate symbols of monarchy.
After the defeat of the French and their Mexican collaborators, the Mexican Republic was re-established, and the flag returned to its republican simplicity.
Tensions within post-independence Mexico pitted those rejecting the ancient civilizations of Mexico as source of national pride, the Hispanistas , mostly politically conservative Mexican elites, and those who saw them as a source of pride, the Indigenistas , who were mostly liberal Mexican elites.
Although the flag of the Mexican Republic had the symbol of the Aztecs as its central element, conservative elites were generally hostile to the current indigenous populations of Mexico or crediting them with a glorious prehispanic history.
With Santa Anna's overthrow in , Mexican liberals and scholars interested in the indigenous past became more active.
Liberals were more favorably inclined to the indigenous populations and their history, but considered a pressing matter being the "Indian Problem.
The late nineteenth century in Mexico was a period in which Aztec civilization became a point of national pride. His policies opening Mexico to foreign investors and modernizing the country under a firm hand controlling unrest, "Order and Progress," undermined Mexico's indigenous populations and their communities.
In world's fairs of the late nineteenth century, Mexico's pavilions included a major focus on its indigenous past, especially the Aztecs. Mexican scholars such as Alfredo Chavero helped shape the cultural image of Mexico at these exhibitions.
The Mexican Revolution — and significant participation of indigenous people in the struggle in many regions, ignited a broad government-sponsored political and cultural movement of indigenismo , with symbols of Mexico's Aztec past becoming ubiquitous, most especially in Mexican muralism of Diego Rivera.
In their works, Mexican authors such as Octavio Paz and Agustin Fuentes have analyzed the use Aztec symbols by the modern Mexican state, critiquing the way it adopts and adapts indigenous culture to political ends, yet they have also in their works made use of the symbolic idiom themselves.
Paz for example critiqued the architectural layout of the National Museum of Anthropology , which constructs a view of Mexican history as culminating with the Aztecs, as an expression of a nationalist appropriation of Aztec culture.
Scholars in Europe and the United States increasingly wanted investigations into Mexico's ancient civilizations, starting in the nineteenth century.
Humboldt had been extremely important bringing ancient Mexico into broader scholarly discussions of ancient civilizations. It was Humboldt…who woke us from our sleep.
Although not directly connected with the Aztecs, it contributed to the increased interest in ancient Mexican studies in Europe.
English aristocrat Lord Kingsborough spent considerable energy in their pursuit of understanding of ancient Mexico. Kingsborough answered Humboldt's call for the publication of all known Mexican codices, publishing nine volumes of Antiquities of Mexico — that were richly illustrated, bankrupting him.
He was not directly interested in the Aztecs, but rather in proving that Mexico had been colonized by Jews. In the United States in the early nineteenth century, interest in ancient Mexico propelled John Lloyd Stephens to travel to Mexico and then publish well-illustrated accounts in the early s.
But the research of a half-blind Bostonian, William Hickling Prescott , into the Spanish conquest of Mexico resulted in his highly popular and deeply researched The Conquest of Mexico His resulting work was a mixture of pro- and anti-Aztec attitudes.
In the assessment of Benjamin Keen , Prescott's history "has survived attacks from every quarter, and still dominates the conceptions of the laymen, if not the specialist, concerning Aztec civilization.
One entire work was devoted to ancient Mexico, half of which concerned the Aztecs. It was a work of synthesis drawing on Ixtlilxochitl and Brasseur de Bourbourg, among others.
When the International Congress of Americanists was formed in Nancy, France in , Mexican scholars became active participants, and Mexico City has hosted the biennial multidisciplinary meeting six times, starting in Mexico's ancient civilizations have continued to be the focus of major scholarly investigations by Mexican and international scholars.
The Nahuatl language is today spoken by 1. Mexican Spanish today incorporates hundreds of loans from Nahuatl, and many of these words have passed into general Spanish use, and further into other world languages.
In Mexico, Aztec place names are ubiquitous, particularly in central Mexico where the Aztec empire was centered, but also in other regions where many towns, cities and regions were established under their Nahuatl names, as Aztec auxiliary troops accompanied the Spanish colonizers on the early expeditions that mapped New Spain.
In this way even towns, that were not originally Nahuatl speaking came to be known by their Nahuatl names. Mexican cuisine continues to be based on staple elements of Mesoamerican cooking and, particularly, of Aztec cuisine : corn, chili, beans, squash, tomato, avocado.
Many of these staple products continue to be known by their Nahuatl names, carrying in this way ties to the Aztec people who introduced these foods to the Spaniards and to the world.
Through spread of ancient Mesoamerican food elements, particularly plants, Nahuatl loan words chocolate , tomato , chili , avocado , tamale , taco , pupusa , chipotle , pozole , atole have been borrowed through Spanish into other languages around the world.
Today Aztec images and Nahuatl words are often used to lend an air of authenticity or exoticism in the marketing of Mexican cuisine. The idea of the Aztecs has captivated the imaginations of Europeans since the first encounters, and has provided many iconic symbols to Western popular culture.
The Aztecs and figures from Aztec mythology feature in Western culture. Knopf , insisted on a change of title. Aztec society has also been depicted in cinema.
It adopted the perspective of an Aztec scribe, Topiltzin, who survived the attack on the temple of Tenochtitlan. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Redirected from Aztec. For other uses, see Aztec disambiguation. Ethnic group of central Mexico and its civilization. Main article: History of the Aztecs.
Main article: Aztec Empire. Main article: Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire. Main articles: Class in Aztec society , Aztec society , and Aztec slavery.
Main article: Women in Aztec civilization. See also: Aztec Empire: Government. Main article: Mexico-Tenochtitlan.
Main article: Aztec religion. Main article: List of Aztec gods and supernatural beings. Main article: Aztec mythology. Main article: Aztec calendar.
Main article: Aztec writing. An Aztec bowl for everyday use. Black on orange ware, a simple Aztec IV style flower design.
Main article: Mexican featherwork. Further information: Society in the Spanish Colonial Americas. Main article: Population history of American indigenous peoples.
See also: Society in the Spanish Colonial Americas. Coat of Arms of Mexico , also present in flag. See also: Aztec cuisine and List of Mexican dishes.
Mesoamerica portal Indigenous peoples of the Americas portal Civilizations portal. I believe it makes more sense to expand the definition of "Aztec" to include the peoples of nearby highland valleys in addition to the inhabitants of the Valley of Mexico.
Readers will find some variation in the terms authors employ in this handbook, but, in general, different authors use Aztecs to refer to people incorporated into the empire of the Triple Alliance in the Late Postclassic period.
An empire of such broad geographic extent [ Scholars often use more specific identifiers, such as Mexica or Tenochca, when appropriate, and they generally employ the term Nahuas to refer to indigenous people in central Mexico [ All of these terms introduce their own problems, whether because they are vague, subsume too much variation, are imposed labels, or are problematic for some other reason.
We have not found a solution that all can agree on and thus accept the varied viewpoints of authors. We use the term Aztec because today it is widely recognized by both scholars and the international public.
In English the variant "Montezuma" was originally the most common, but has now largely been replaced with "motecuhzoma" and "moteuczoma", in Spanish the term "moctezuma" which inverts the order of t and k has been predominant and is a common surname in Mexico, but is now also largely replaced with a form that respects the original Nahuatl structure, such as "motecuzoma".
Indeed no conquests are recorded for Motecuzoma in the last years of his reign, suggesting that he may have been incapable of ruling, or even dead Diel Archived from the original on 17 October Retrieved 30 August Online Etymology Dictionary.
Archived from the original on 7 July The New York Times. Archived from the original on 13 January Retrieved 5 January Macmillan Publishers.
Archived from the original on 22 September Retrieved 12 April Archived from the original on 12 April Part One: Historical Films". Native American Films.
Archived from the original on 15 October The Early History of Greater Mexico. Prentice Hall. In Deborah L. The Oxford Handbook of the Aztecs.
Barlow, Robert H. The Americas. University of California Press. Beekman, C. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory. Berdan, Frances Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology.
Berdan, Frances F. Hodge; Michael E. Smith; Emily Umberger eds. Aztec Imperial Strategies. Imperial Strategies and Core-Periphery Relations".
The Essential Codex Mendoza. Aztec Archaeology and Ethnohistory. Cambridge University Press. Berdan, F. Ancient Mesoamerica. Boone, Elizabeth Hill Austin: University of Texas Press.
Brading, D. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bright, W. Brumfiel, Elizabeth M. Archeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association.
Bueno, Christina University of New Mexico Press. Burkhart, Louise M. Indian women of early Mexico. Dialectologia et Geolinguistica. Campbell, Lyle Oxford Studies in Anthropoical Linguistics, 4.
Carrasco, David Boston, MA: Beacon Press. The Aztecs: A very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. Carrasco, Pedro University of Oklahoma Press.
Charlton, Thomas Mesoamerica Part 1. Chipman, Donald E. University of Texas Press. Cline, Howard F. Cline ed.
Cline, Sarah Mesoamerica Part 2. The Aztec palimpsest: Mexico in the Modern Imagination. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Diel, Lori B. RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics. Elson, Cristina; Smith, Michael E. Franco, Jean Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies. Frazier, E.
In Cora Ma. Falero Ruiz ed. Escudo Nacional: flora, fauna y biodiversidad. Gibson, Charles Stanford: Stanford University Press. Gillespie, Susan D.
Greene, Doyle Gutierrez, Natividad University of Nebraska Press. Hajovsky, Patrick Thomas Harner, Michael American Ethnologist.
Haskett, R. Indigenous rulers: An ethnohistory of town government in colonial Cuernavaca. Hassig, Ross Civilization of the American Indian series.
Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. War and Society in Ancient Mesoamerica. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Polygamy and the Rise and Demise of the Aztec Empire. Haugen, J. Journal in English Lexicology. Helland, J. Woman's Art Journal. Hirth, Kenneth G.
The Aztec Economic World. Himmerich y Valencia, Robert The Encomenderos of New Spain, Hodge, Mary G. James; Minc, Leah D. Latin American Antiquity.
Humboldt, Alexander von University of Chicago Press. Isaac, B. Journal of Anthropological Research. Karttunen, Frances ; Lockhart, James Estudios de Cultura Nahuatl.
Kaufman, Terrence Project for the Documentation of the Languages of Mesoamerica. Revised March Keen, Benjamin The Aztec image in Western thought.
New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. Keen, B. Kubler, George Hispanic American Historical Review. Lacadena, Alfonso VIII 4. Fifteen Poets of the Aztec World.
Norman, Oklahoma : University of Oklahoma Press. Estudios de la Cultura Nahuatl. Bernardino de Sahagun, First Anthropologist. Mauricio J. Mixco trans.
Lockhart, James Repertorium Columbianum. Translated by Lockhart, James. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Culture.
Tamoanchan, Tlalocan: Places of Mist. Mesoamerican Worlds series. Translated by Bernard R. Ortiz de Montellano; Thelma Ortiz de Montellano.
Niwot: University Press of Colorado. The Offerings of the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
MacLeod, Murdo Martz, Louis L. New Directions Books. Matos Moctezuma, Eduardo New Aspects of Antiquity series.
Doris Heyden trans. In Hill Boone, Elizabeth ed. The Aztec Templo Mayor. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. McCaa, Robert Journal of Interdisciplinary History.
Archived from the original on 12 July Retrieved 17 February Miller, Mary ; Taube, Karl Minc, Leah D. Montes de Oca, Mercedes Mora, Carl J.
Mexican Cinema: Reflections of a Society, , 3d ed. Mundy, B. Nichols, Deborah L. Nicholson, H. In Gordon F. Ekholm; Ignacio Bernal eds.
In Elizabeth Hill Boone ed. Dumbarton Oaks. Studies in Pre-Columbian Art and Archaeology. The Oxford Handbook of The Aztecs.
Oxford: Oxford University Press Usually, if a person was born in a social class, they would stay in that class for the rest of their life.
Aztecs had harsh punishments for crimes that seem simple to us now. For example, a person could get the death penalty for adultery ; cutting down a living tree ; moving the boundary of a field to make their land bigger and someone else's smaller; major theft ; treason ; disorderly conduct causing trouble in public , drunkenness ; and promiscuity.
Under Aztec sumptuary law, a commoner could also get the death penalty for wearing cotton. Aztec 'high lords', who were in the top social class.
Merchants , members of "the commoners," carry things they want to sell a long way away. The Aztecs studied astrology and used the movements of the planets and the stars to create different calendars.
They also had a religious calendar which was made up of days. The Aztecs also studied and taught many complex subjects, including geometry , mathematics , debate , law , music , poetry , architecture , and agriculture.
The most popular Aztec sport was Tlachtili. They played this game using rubber balls and vertical hoops on opposite walls in the middle of the court.
The game's goal was to shoot the ball into the hoop using their knees. The first team to score won the game.
The conquistadors defeated the Aztecs, took their empire, and made it into a Spanish colony. Today many Mexicans have Aztec and other Native American forefathers.
People still use Aztec symbols in Mexico. On the Mexican flag , there is a picture of an eagle on a cactus with a snake in its mouth. This was an Aztec symbol.
From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Map of city-states in the 16th century. Main article: Aztec Empire.
Main article: Tenochtitlan. Main article: Mesoamerican ball game. Main article: Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire.
Great Empires of the Past: Empire of the Aztecs. Infobase Publishing. Voyages in World History, Volume I. Centgage Learning. UNM Press.
The Aztec World. Benchmark Education Company. Ancient Aztecs. Lorenz Educational Press. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited.
Retrieved April 17, Alexander Eds. The American Indian Heritage Foundation. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Paul Tice ed. Indians in the Americas.
Book Tree. Aztec Medicine, Health and Nutrition. New Brunswick : Rutgers University Press.